Cesar Viloria and Arsen Wannissian
Viloria Blanco Gallery Directors
cordially invite you to
the Opening Reception of

The Multiple

Curated By Francisco Arévalo

on Monday, December 1st, 6 – 10 pm
2301 N. Miami Ave.
Wynwood Arts District
Valet Parking Available


Martha Boto, Acceleration a Paris, 1969, Ch 36 x 35 x 22
Martha Boto, Acceleration Paris 1969, 36 x 35 x 22 cm

“The Multiple is a chronological survey of the origins of the multiple as a social tool for the mass use of art. Back in the late 1930’s, Marcel Duchamp created a series of ready-made objects originally or hand-signed by him, and multiplied them beyond the historical standards of artists’ editions. The idea of mass production of an object of artistic value at low prices bore the idea of introducing the art to the masses, making it affordable. By 1953, ballet dancer, philosopher and artist Daniel Spoerri further developed Duchamp’s idea, making it more formal and structured, and called upon a number of fellow artists to create an object that would be massively produced and bear the social intention of reaching low-income art lovers. Jesús R. Soto and Ives Klein, among others, collaborated on this project. By 1959, Spoerri evolved the idea into an enterprise that he called MAT (Multiple Art Transformation), which in the 1960’s produced many of the editions of contemporary artists that were exhibited at the Denise René Gallery in Paris. The social intention of mass production for a broader placement of low-cost art works has always been prepared by the conspicuous consumption and marketing interferences of art collectors and galleries.

It is our intention to bring life to the much ignored historical importance of the evolution of the multiples from the humble and altruistic idea of Spoerri to the pure commercial one of the life of light of Damien Hirst.” Francisco Arévalo, curator.

Daniel Spoerri and the origins of the Multiplication d'Art Transformable:

Upon arriving in Paris in 1959, Daniel Spoerri set up the first chapter of MAT (Multiplication d'Art Transformable). It consisted of an edition of 100 original multiples, all signed and individually priced. To sum up, some of the artists in this edition were: Jesus R. Soto and Vasarely among others….subsequently Arman, Le Parc and a group of avant-gard Pop and Op tendencies artists joined the group.
The Idea of Spoerri was to reaffirm contemporary’s art social problem. For art to reach as many people in all of its form.
To multiply, to diffuse its message, to be diverse, to make the creative urge be facilitated by mass communication was his original creed.
Art speaking to as many people as possible.
As Pierre Restany concluded in the MAT manifesto of 1966:“an act of faith…a creed for artworks to be disseminated…a further step toward the de-commercialization of art... the logical corollary of art's integration into society.” 


Jesus R. Soto, La Huella, 1957, oil on wood & silkscreen over plexiglas, 50 x 50 cm. Ed. 4/10
Jesus R. Soto, La Huella, 1957, oil on wood & silkscreen over plexiglas, 50 x 50 cm. Ed. 4/10

In Reference to Soto’s La Huella.

Jesus R. Soto was an active member of the avant garde to which Spoerri summed himself in the late 1950’s. The multiple “La Huella” was first edited under such principles, yet its manufacturing ended being divided by two editions, the first 30 works in wood and the remaining ones in serigraphed plexiglass, attesting to the advent of the incorporation of new technologies into the manufacturing of multiples, an idea foremost championed by Spoerri.

“The existence of relationships in every lucid moment of our behavior…the laws of chance, becoming aware of realities we had not previously thought about.” Jesús R. Soto, 1965, Signals News Bulletin.


Piero Manzoni, Artists’ Shit, contents 30 gr. net, freshly preserved. Produced and tinned in May 1961.
Piero Manzoni, Artists’ Shit, contents 30 gr. net, freshly preserved. Produced and tinned in May 1961.

In Reference to Piero Manzoni’s Merda de Artista”:

The edition consists of 90 tin cans, filled with feces, each 30 grams and measuring 4.8 x 6.5 cm, with a label in Italian, English, French, and German stating: Artist’s Shit. Contents 30 gm of shit freshly preserved produced and tinned in May 1961.
At the time the piece was created, Manzoni was producing works that explored the relationship between art production and human production, Artist's Breath ("Fiato d'artista"), a series of balloons filled with his own breath, being an example.
Manzoni's father, who owned a cannery, is said to have once told his artist son, "Your work is shit."
In December 1961, Manzoni wrote in a letter to his friend Ben Vaultier:
"I should like all artists to sell their fingerprints, or else stage competitions to see who can draw the longest line or sell their shit in tins. The fingerprint is the only sign of the personality that can be accepted: if collectors want something intimate, really personal to the artist, there's the artist's own shit, that is really his."
Artist's Shit has been interpreted in relation to Karl Marx’s idea of commodity fetishism and with Marcel Duchamp ready mades further cementing the original idea os Spoerri in relation to the mass and social repercussions of the multiple as an art form.
The cans were originally to be valued according to their equivalent weight in gold - $37 each in 1961- with the price fluctuating according to the market.

About Viloria Blanco Gallery

Viloria Blanco Gallery was founded in 2008 in Maracaibo, Venezuela representing, showcasing and promoting Venezuelan and International emerging, mid-career and renowned Contemporary artists. Since its foundation, Viloria Blanco Gallery has participated and attended well-known international art fairs.

In July 2014, Cesar Viloria and Arsen Wannissian opened Viloria Blanco Gallery in Wynwood, one of the largest and most prominent creative communities in the United States. Viloria Blanco Gallery represents a select group of renowned, established and talented emerging artists who are producing significant works of art that resonate and engage with contemporary visual culture. The gallery works in collaboration with other gallerists, art dealers and recognized curators to help art lovers and collectors to build a valuable collection in painting, photography and sculpture.

Viloria Blanco Gallery2301 N. Miami Ave.
Wynwood Arts District
786 534 7800